Contents

Metadata about the metadata record Metadata about the resource
File Identifier
Hierarchy level name
Metadata date
Metadata language
Metadata point of contact
Metadata standard name
Metadata standard version
Parent identifier
Resource type
Abstract
Alternative title
Bounding box
Conformity
Coupled resource
Dataset reference date
Equivalent scale
Extent
Keyword
Limitations on public access
Quality scope
Resource locator
Responsible organisation
Spatial data service type
Spatial reference system
Spatial resolution
Temporal extent
Title
Use constraints
Vertical extent information

Return to GEMINI 2.3 home page


Metadata about the metadata record


Name : Metadata date
UK GEMINI id 30
Definition Date on which the metadata was last updated, or was confirmed as being up-to-date,
or if not updated, then the date it was created
Purpose and meaning This is the date at which the metadata can be considered current (rather than the
dataset itself). It may be the date at which the metadata was reviewed and confirmed as
being ‘current’. It is used to distinguish which of two records with the same fileIdentifier the system will keep.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type Date
Domain Single date as specified by BS ISO 8601 in the extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD),
where YYYY is the year, MM is the month and DD is the day. Time (HH:MM:SS, where HH is the
hour, MM the minutes and SS the seconds) may be added if required, separated from the day
by ‘T’.
Guidance

  1. This should be updated whenever the metadata is updated due to a change in the
    dataset, or when it is reviewed and confirmed as wholly correct.
  2. The date should be at an appropriate level of resolution (e.g. the day, or the day
    and month).
  3. The date should not be in the future.

Comment If the metadata has not been updated, then this should be the date when it was
created.
Examples 2001-09-02
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Metadata date Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.dateStamp Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dateStamp/gco:Date Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change of name from Date of last update of metadata
Guidelines The encoding example for metadata date is shown in Example One. Note that it is
possible to record the date and time of the metadata instance using the encoding shown in
Example Two.
Example Example One

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dateStamp>
    <gco:Date>2009-10-15</gco:Date>
  </gmd:dateStamp>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two (date and time)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dateStamp>
    <gco:DateTime>2009-10-15T12:01:30</gco:DateTime>
  </gmd:dateStamp>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed This is used to distinguish which of two records with
the same fileIdentifier the system will keep. Even if the records are moved to a different
server, if the fileIdentifier and metadata date are the same, the harvester will not collect
the new files.

Name : Metadata language
UK GEMINI id 33
Definition Language used for documenting the metadata
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this is to identify the language used in a multi-lingual metadata
service, for example in the INSPIRE geo-portal.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance

  1. It is recommended to select a value from a controlled vocabulary, for example that
    provided by ISO 639-2 which uses three-letter primary tags with optional subtags.
  2. The values for the UK are:
    English eng
    Welsh cym*
    Irish gle
    Gaelic (Scottish) gla
    Cornish cor
    Ulster Scots sco

    *ISO 639/2 has two codes for Welsh: textual (‘cym’) and
    bibliographic (‘wel’). For GEMINI we recommend using cym, which abbreviates
    that language’s own name for itself.

  3. Other official European languages are listed at Official languages of the EU.
  4. In general, a default value of ‘eng’ can be applied.
  5. If there is only a small amount of metadata in a second language, e.g. Alternative title, then Metadata language should still indicate the main language.

Comment For INSPIRE, the metadata itself must be in one of the official European
languages, such as English or Irish.
Examples eng
Revision date September 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Metadata language Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.language Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:language/gmd:LanguageCode Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
Guidelines INSPIRE recommends providing the name of the language as content of the
gmd:LanguageCode element
Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:language>
    <gmd:LanguageCode 
      codeList='http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php' 
      codeListValue='eng'>English</gmd:LanguageCode>
  </gmd:language>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed
Metadata language missing
Metadata language is optional in ISO 19115 and GEMINI
2.2, but mandatory for INSPIRE and therefore in GEMINI 2.3. This is now checked by the UK
Location GEMINI schematron.

Name : Metadata point of contact
UK GEMINI id 35
Definition Party responsible for the creation and maintenance of the metadata
Purpose and meaning This is the organisation or role in an organisation responsible for this
metadata.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance Should include organisation name and contact email address, as described under
Responsible party.
Comment
Examples Large-scale Topographic Data Manager, Ordnance Survey.
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Metadata point of contact Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.contact > CI_ResponsibleParty ISO 19115 has a general class
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:contact/gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
Guidelines

  • The encoding example for metadata point of contact is shown below. Note that the
    example shows the minimum required information.
  • The format of address and contact information is described at Responsible party, with a more
    fully populated example.
  • More than one metadata point of contact may be expressed in metadata. The role of at
    least one metadata point of contact shall be ‘pointOfContact’.

Example Example showing minimum required information

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:contact>
    <gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
      <gmd:organisationName>
        <gco:CharacterString>SeaZone Solutions</gco:CharacterString>
      </gmd:organisationName>
      <gmd:contactInfo>
        <gmd:CI_Contact>
          <gmd:address>
            <gmd:CI_Address>
              <gmd:electronicMailAddress>
                <gco:CharacterString>This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:electronicMailAddress>
            </gmd:CI_Address>
          </gmd:address>
        </gmd:CI_Contact>
      </gmd:contactInfo>
      <gmd:role>
        <gmd:CI_RoleCode 
          codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode' 
          codeListValue='pointOfContact'>pointOfContact</gmd:CI_RoleCode>
      </gmd:role>
    </gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
  </gmd:contact>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Resource type
UK GEMINI id 39
Definition Scope to which metadata applies
Purpose and meaning To distinguish between datasets, series, and services
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CodeList
Domain MD_ScopeCode from ISO 19115. Code to be used for services is ‘service’
Guidance Identify the resource as a service.
Comment
Examples service
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource type Identical
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.hierarchyLevel Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:hierarchyLevel Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element, required for INSPIRE
Guidelines No specific rules for this metadata element
Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:hierarchyLevel>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='service' 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>service</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
  </gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : File Identifier
UK GEMINI id 45
Definition Unique identifier for this metadata file
Purpose and meaning To support the operation of UK Location and INSPIRE, discovery metadata records must
include a File Identifier for the resource.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance

  1. File Identifier must be populated with a unique identifier. This may be a UUID
    generated by a metadata creation tool.
    Once created and published to UK
    Location, the File Identifier must not be changed.

    A change to the File Identifier would represent the creation of a new resource.

    If the UK Catalogue receives two records with the same File Identifier, the one
    with the more recent metadata date will be retained.

  2. Persistence and uniqueness across the metadata infrastructure are key
  3. Only use characters that are allowed in URIs (RFC3986), in particular, do not use
    curly brackets
  4. ISO AP 1.0 recommends that
    it is a UUID

Comment File Identifier should not be confused with the UK GEMINI2 metadata item
Resource identifier, which identifies the data resource being described.
Examples
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata metadata/2.0/rec/common/fileIdentifier Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.fileIdentifier Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:fileIdentifier Equivalent

  • introduced in the UK Location application profile and XML encoding
  • New element in GEMINI 2.3

Guidelines

  1. The first XML child element of any GEMINI2 metadata instance shall be
    gmd:fileIdentifier. The content of this XML element is the identifier of the metadata
    instance. File identifier is not a metadata item of GEMINI2. It is not to be confused
    with the metadata item Resource identifier.
  2. The content of the XML element shall be a unique managed identifier, such as a
    system generated UUID. Once the identifier has been set for a metadata instance it
    shall not change.

Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  <gmd:fileIdentifier>
    <gco:CharacterString>98e25be5-388d-4be3-bc5f-ba07ef6009b2</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:fileIdentifier>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed

  1. Two records with the same identifier, resulting in only one being harvested
  2. New identifier for an existing record, leading to duplicate records
  3. Identifiers wrapped in curly brackets


Name : Hierarchy level name
UK GEMINI id 47
Definition Name of the hierarchy level for which the metadata is provided
Purpose and meaning Required in the ISO 19115 encoding of GEMINI 2.3 metadata records, where it allows
for multiple scoped sections in the metadata.
Obligation Conditional, required when Resource type (ISO hierarchyLevel) is not “dataset”.
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance Set to “service”, “series” as appropriate. Can be set “dataset”, but in that case it is optional
Comment
Examples

  • service

Revision date April 2020
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata see metadata/2.0/req/sds/resource-type, even for series Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.hierarchyLevelName Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:hierarchyLevelName Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines No specific rules for this metadata element
Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:hierarchyLevel>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='service' 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>INSPIRE View Service</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
  </gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  <gmd:hierarchyLevelName>
    <gco:CharacterString>service</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:hierarchyLevelName>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>

No error information available

Name : Parent identifier
UK GEMINI id 49
Definition File identifier of the metadata that is a parent to this child
metadata
Purpose and meaning Supports parent-child relationships in metadata. Allows navigation from a dataset record to the series record of which it forms a part.
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain free text
Guidance Only to be used if the service is designed to be part of a set of services
Comment
Examples
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
ISO 19115:2003 MD_parentidentifier.scope Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:parentIdentifier Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines No specific rules for this metadata element
Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:language>
    ...
  </gmd:language>
  <gmd:parentIdentifier>
    <gco:CharacterString>d442b64c-c8c8-11e4-8731-1681e6b88999</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:parentIdentifier>
  <gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  ...
  </gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Metadata standard name
UK GEMINI id 54
Definition Name of the metadata standard or profile used.
The relevant standard shall be cited with a reference to the appropriate register entry.
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to record the metadata standard (profile) followed when creating the metadata.
This will be important when metadata is passed from one metadata system to another.
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
See also Metadata standard version
Comment In order to add a new metadata (profile) standard name to the NERC vocab server, contact GEMINI at AGI
Examples

  • ISO 19115
  • UK GEMINI
  • NERC profile of ISO19115:2003

Revision date January 2020
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata not specified
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.metadataStandardName added guidance
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:metadataStandardName added guidance

  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: deleted
  • GEMINI 2.3 September 2020: reinstated

Guidelines GEMINI is supported by a register of metadata standard and profile names, hosted on the NERC vocab server.
The relevant standard shall be cited with a reference to the appropriate register entry, using an Anchor.
Example
Example One – UK GEMINI 2.3

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:metadataStandardName>
      <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/M25/current/GEMINI/">UK GEMINI</gmx:Anchor>
  </gmd:metadataStandardName>
  <gmd:metadataStandardVersion>
      <gco:CharacterString>2.3</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:metadataStandardVersion>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
            
Example Two – MEDIN profile of GEMINI 2.3 
...
  <gmd:metadataStandardName>
     <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/M25/current/MEDIN/">MEDIN</gmx:Anchor>
  </gmd:metadataStandardName>
  <gmd:metadataStandardVersion>
      <gco:CharacterString>3.0</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:metadataStandardVersion>
...

No error information available

Name : Metadata standard version
UK GEMINI id 55
Definition Version of the metadata standard (profile) used
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to record the version of the metadata standard (profile) followed when creating the metadata
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance The relevant version or edition number of the standard shall be given, with any profile version in brackets.
See also Metadata standard name
Comment This will be important when metadata is passed from one metadata system to another.
Examples

  • 2003
  • 2.3

Revision date January 2020
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata not specified
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.metadataStandardVersion added guidance
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:metadataStandardVersion added guidance

  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: deleted
  • GEMINI 2.3 September 2020: reinstated

Guidelines No specific rules for this metadata element
Example
Example One – GEMINI 2.3

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:metadataStandardName>
      <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/M25/current/GEMINI/">ISO 19115 (GEMINI)</gmx:Anchor>
  </gmd:metadataStandardName>
  <gmd:metadataStandardVersion>
      <gco:CharacterString>2.3</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:metadataStandardVersion>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Metadata about the resource


Name : Title
UK GEMINI id 1
Definition Name given to the resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to provide a readily recognisable name for the
resource.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance

  1. The name should be readily recognisable
  2. The title should be the formal or product name for the data resource, if
    existing.
  3. If no name exists, then a title should be created that is short, encapsulates the
    subject, temporal and spatial coverage of the data resource, and does not contain
    terms or jargon that make it incomprehensible.
  4. Acronyms are acceptable in the Title providing they are fully expanded in the
    abstract or Alternative Title.

Comment
Examples

  • OS MasterMap Topography Layer
  • Voter participation in Liverpool local elections, 1994, by ward

Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource title Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.citation > CI_Citation.title Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:citation/gmd:CI_Citation/gmd:title Equivalent
Guidelines Cannot be empty
Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      <gmd:citation>
        <gmd:CI_Citation>
          <gmd:title>
            <gco:CharacterString>WMS publishing the Digital Geological Map Data of Great Britain - 625k</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:title>
          ...
        </gmd:CI_Citation>
      </gmd:citation>
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Alternative title
UK GEMINI id 2
Definition Short name, other name, acronym or alternative language title for the data
resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to record any alternative titles by which the data
resource is known.
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance

  1. Should be provided when the data resource has more than one title.
  2. There is no need to fill in this entry unless there are other names used for the
    dataset, for example historic names.
  3. Commonly used abbreviations or acronyms should be recorded. If the acronym or
    abbreviation has been used in the main Title, then use the full name in the
    Alternative Title.
  4. Other language equivalents should be recorded where they exist, for example the
    Welsh language title (although this title may refer to a different data
    resource).
  5. Entries should be short and concise.

Comment
Examples OS large-scale data
Revision date April 2020
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata None INSPIRE has no Alternative title, only a single title
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.citation > CI_Citation.alternateTitle Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:citation/gmd:CI_Citation/gmd:alternateTitle Equivalent
Guidelines Note that more than one alternative title may be presented, as shown in the
example below.
Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      <gmd:citation>
        <gmd:CI_Citation>
          ...
          <gmd:alternateTitle>
            <gco:CharacterString>WMS publishing the Geology onshore digital maps 1:625 000 scale</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:alternateTitle>
          <gmd:alternateTitle>
            <gco:CharacterString>Service publishing DiGMapGB-625</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:alternateTitle>
          ...
        </gmd:CI_Citation>
      </gmd:citation>
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Abstract
UK GEMINI id 4
Definition Brief narrative summary of the resource
Purpose and meaning The abstract should provide a clear and concise statement that enables the reader to
understand the content of the data or service
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance The abstract should provide a clear statement of the content of
the service, and not general background information.

For services with restriction on
the spatial resolution, these restrictions shall be expressed in the abstract. The
spatial resolution restriction text shall include either an equivalent scale as integer
valued scale denominator or a resolution distance using a numerical length value and
with a unit of length.

  1. State what the ‘things’ are that are recorded.
  2. State the key aspects recorded about these things.
  3. State what form the data takes.
  4. State any other limiting information, such as time period of validity of the
    data.
  5. Add purpose of data resource where relevant (e.g. for survey data).
  6. Include a description of the extent or location.
  7. Include legal references.
  8. Aim to be understood by non-experts.
  9. Do not include general background information.
  10. Avoid jargon and unexplained abbreviations.
  11. Acronyms should be expanded to the full name along with the abbreviated version at
    the beginning of the abstract. The abbreviated version can then be used (see examples
    below).

Note: the Schematron validation will raise an error if the abstract is less than 100 characters, or is the same as the title.

Comment The most important details of the description should be summarised in the first
sentence, or the first 256 characters.
Examples

  1. This file contains the digital vector boundaries for Lower Layer Super Output Areas
    (LSOA) as at 31 December 2011 in England and Wales.
  2. This file contains the National Statistics Postcode Lookup (NSPL) for the United
    Kingdom as at February 2017.

Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource abstract Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.abstract Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:abstract Equivalent
Guidelines Cannot be empty
Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <gmd:abstract>
        <gco:CharacterString>Europe Mapping Service based on the Image2000 European mosaic (multispectral)</gco:CharacterString>
      </gmd:abstract>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Keyword
UK GEMINI id 6
Definition Topic of the content of the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to indicate the general subject area of the data
resource using keywords. This enables searches to eliminate resources that are of no
interest. Ideally, a standardised set of keywords should be used, so that resources can be
identified in any search. This element is similar to Topic category, which has a coded list of
high-level categories, whereas Keyword allows more appropriate terms to describe the data
resource.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises the following elements:

  1. Keyword value (mandatory)
  2. Originating controlled vocabulary (conditional – if keywords originate from a controlled vocabulary)

These are specified as follows:

Keyword value Originating controlled vocabulary
Definition topic of the content of the data resource name of the formally registered thesaurus or a similar authoritative source of
keywords
Obligation mandatory conditional – required if keywords
originate from a controlled vocabulary
Occurrence multiple single
Data type CharacterString Class CI_Citation (from
ISO19115)
Domain free text The following properties are expected:

  1. title of type character string (free text)
  2. reference date defined as
    • a date type (creation, revision or publication)
    • an effective date
Other Comments a default value will generally be assigned for
this

Guidance

  1. Keyword values should if possible be taken from a list of standard subject
    categories, identified in the element ‘Originating controlled
    vocabulary’.
  2. Possible vocabularies include the Integrated Public Sector Vocabulary (IPSV) from the esd-toolkit, which should
    be used by public sector bodies, and GEMET
  3. For other Keywords, if drawn from a Controlled Vocabulary, this must be stated.
  4. Terms covering the subject of the data resource should be selected.
  5. For conformance with INSPIRE, the keyword should describe the relevant INSPIRE
    spatial data theme, such as those contained in GEMET INSPIRE;
  6. The formal citation for the vocabulary should be given, including at least the title
    and reference date.
  7. Acronyms and their expanded versions as separate keywords are acceptable within the
    Keyword element.
  8. Other standard subject category areas may be used, and different user communities
    may need to create their own lists of subject areas.
  9. Multiple keywords may be stored in an individual metadata record, and these may come
    from more than one originating controlled vocabulary.

If the resource is an INSPIRE spatial data service, at least one keyword from part D.4 of the
INSPIRE Metadata Regulation
[7]must be provided.

The citation should be the title of the regulation.

Comment This element is similar to Topic Category, but allows a broader range of values.
Examples

  • Land cover, General Environmental Multi-Lingual Thesaurus (GEMET)
  • Gazetteer service, General Environmental Multi-Lingual Thesaurus (GEMET)

Revision date May 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata inspire-theme-keyword and additional-keywords Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.descriptiveKeywords > MD_Keywords Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:descriptiveKeywords/gmd:MD_Keywords Equivalent

  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change of name from ‘Subject’
  2. GEMINI 2.0 to 2.1: expansion to include keyword value and originating controlled
    vocabulary

Guidelines

  1. The GEMINI2 keyword item comprises keyword value(s) and, conditionally, the
    specification of an originating controlled vocabulary. If keywords are not selected
    from a controlled vocabulary the encoding shown in Example One shall be used.
  2. In the context of INSPIRE the presence of at least one keyword is mandated. For
    service metadata there shall be at least one keyword defining the category or
    subcategory of the service using its language neutral name as defined in Part D 4 of
    the Metadata Implementing Rules (the language neutral names are the words in brackets
    using lower camel case notation). The keyword shown in Example Two is an example of
    this
  3. Where keywords do originate from a controlled vocabulary the encoding shown in
    Example Two shall be used. Note the inclusion of the gmd:thesaurusName XML element
    which contains the XML element gmd:CI_Citation. This element must contain at least a
    title, reference date and date type. In the example keywords have been selected from
    the GEMET Concepts controlled vocabulary.
  4. Example Three shows how the GEMET INSPIRE themes and the GEMET concepts controlled
    vocabularies should be cited according to the
    INSPIRE guidance
    [9].
  5. Note that more than one keyword value may be selected from a single controlled
    vocabulary. Note also that keywords may be selected from more than one controlled
    vocabulary. In this case the encoding shown in Example One shall be used.
  6. The srv:SV_ServiceIdentification XML element has an optional property srv:keywords
    which exhibits the same behaviour as gmd:descriptiveKeywords. Consequently keywords
    for service metadata could be encoded in the way shown in Example Five. This approach
    shall not be followed in GEMINI2 metadata instances
  7. This case arises because the XML element gmd:descriptiveKeywords is a an instance of
    the property (or role in fact) on the ISO 19115 abstract class MD_Identification, from
    which both SV_ServiceIdentification and MD_DataIdentification inherit. Therefore,
    SV_ServiceIdentification inherits the descriptiveKeywords property and adds a similar
    property called keywords.
  8. Recommended best practice is to select a human readable value from a controlled
    vocabulary. An example from the Marine Geospatial community is
    http://seadatanet.maris2.nl/v_bodc_vocab_v2/search.asp?lib=P02

Example Example One (services) - without controlled vocabulary

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>sounding</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two (services) - service keyword from part D4 on the INSPIRE Metadata Implementing
Rules

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <gmd:keywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>humanCatalogueViewer</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:thesaurusName>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
		  <gmd:title>
		    <gco:CharacterString>Commission Regulation (EC) No 1205/2008 of 3 December 2008 implementing Directive 2007/2/
		      EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards metadata</gco:CharacterString>
		  </gmd:title>
		  <gmd:alternateTitle>
                    <gco:CharacterString>INSPIRE Metadata Implementing Rules</gco:CharacterString>
		  </gmd:alternateTitle>
	        <gmd:date>
  	          <gmd:CI_Date>
			<gmd:date>
			  <gco:Date>2008-12-03</gco:Date>
			</gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                      codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
  		  </gmd:date>
              <gmd:identifier>
	          <gmd:MD_Identifier>
		      <gmd:code>
                        <gco:CharacterString>OJ:L:2008:326:0012:01</gco:CharacterString>
	              </gmd:code>
                </gmd:MD_Identifier>
              </gmd:identifier>
              <gmd:otherCitationDetails>
                <gco:CharacterString>D 4 CLASSIFICATION OF SPATIAL DATA SERVICES</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:otherCitationDetails>
	      </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:thesaurusName>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:keywords>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Three (services) - GEMET concepts

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>water monitoring</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>water quality</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:thesaurusName>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gco:CharacterString>GEMET - Concepts, version 2.4</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:title>
              <gmd:date>
                <gmd:CI_Date>
                  <gmd:date>
                    <gco:Date>2010-01-13</gco:Date>
                  </gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                      codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
              </gmd:date>
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:thesaurusName>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Four (services) - keywords from two controlled vocabularies

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>humanCatalogueViewer</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>water monitoring</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>water quality</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:thesaurusName>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gco:CharacterString>GEMET - Concepts, version 2.4</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:title>
              <gmd:date>
                <gmd:CI_Date>
                  <gmd:date>
                    <gco:Date>2010-01-13</gco:Date>
                  </gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                      codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
              </gmd:date>
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:thesaurusName>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Five (services) - keywords in the srv namespace (this encoding is not to be used)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:keywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>humanCatalogueViewer</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </srv:keywords>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed
Insufficient INSPIRE keywords

INSPIRE requires service metadata records to include a keyword from part D.4 of the
INSPIRE Metadata Regulation
[7] , for example:

<gmd:keyword>
  <gco:CharacterString>infoMapAccessService</gco:CharacterString>
</gmd:keyword>

Incorrect INSPIRE keywords

Putting in more than one INSPIRE keyword, where the first keyword in the list is not
the correct Annex/Theme


Name : Temporal extent
UK GEMINI id 7
Definition Date for the content of the data resource
Purpose and meaning This is the date or date range that identifies the currency of the data. It may refer
to the period of collection, or the date at which it is deemed to be current.
Obligation Conditional for services – where a temporal extent is relevant to the
service
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Date
Domain Date, or two dates defining the duration of the period, as defined by BS ISO
8601.
Guidance

  1. Dates may be to any degree of precision, from year (YYYY) to full date and
    time.
  2. The extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD) should be used, where YYYY is the year, MM the
    month and DD the day.
  3. If required, time (HH:MM:SS, where HH is the hour, MM the minute and SS the second)
    may be added, with T separating the two parts.
  4. Periods are recorded as {fromdate/todate} (e.g. 2006-04-01/2007-03-31). Either
    fromdate or todate (but not both) may be left blank to indicate uncertainty.
  5. There may be more than one Temporal Extent.
  6. The coarsest resolution allowable is ‘year’.

Comment

  1. If the data resource relates to a historic period, then this is part of the subject,
    e.g. ‘cretaceous period’. In this case the date is the date of discovery or
    observation.
  2. This element should not be confused with Dataset reference date which is an
    identifying date for the data resource.
  3. Temporal extent is the date of the validity of the data and is different from
    Dataset reference date which is an identifying date for the data resource.
    For example, an atlas might represent data collected up to the end of one year, but
    have a reference date of the following year.

Examples

  • 2001-01-01
  • 2009-05-02T09:10:01
  • 1939/1945
  • /2003-03-31
  • 2000/
  • 19

Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Temporal Extent Similar, but in INSPIRE it is optional if another temporal reference is
provided.
ISO 19115:2003 EX_Extent > EX_TemporalExtent.extent Identical
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/srv:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:temporalElement Identical

  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Name changed from Date
  2. GEMINI 2.1 to 2.2: Coarsest resolution changed from ‘century’ to ‘year’

Guidelines

  1. The basic encoding for temporal extent is shown in Example One (datasets/series).
    The temporal extent data shall be encoded using the gml:TimePeriod type from the gml
    namespace. The underlying schemas and standards in fact allow greater flexibility here
    but for the purposes of GEMINI2 only the gml:TimePeriod XML element and the
    gml:TimeInstant XML element (for single dates) shall be used. In addition
    gml:TimePeriod shall contain only gml:beginPosition followed by gml:endPosition. Time
    positions shall be expressed in the Gregorian calendar and UTC as per BS ISO
    8601.
  2. The gml:TimePeriod and gml:TimeInstant XML elements must have an identifier in order
    to be schema valid. A UUID can be used, as is shown in the Example One
    (datasets/series). The identifier only needs to be unique in the scope of the metadata
    instance so a value of ‘t1’ (see Example Two – datasets/series) is acceptable.
    Allowable content of id attributes:

    • GML XML elements which are used in metadata have a mandatory gml:id attribute.
      The value domain of the identifier is referred to as XML name. XML names have
      certain restrictions. They may contain any alphanumeric character, non-English
      alphanumeric characters, ideograms and the underscore, hyphen and period. They may
      not contain any other punctuation characters. The colon is allowed, but its use is
      reserved for namespaces, so it cannot appear in an identifier. XML names may not
      include any whitespace including spaces and carriage returns. All names beginning
      with the letters XML (in uppercase, lowercase or any mixture thereof) are
      reserved.
    • XML names may only start with letters, ideograms and the underscore character.
      Consequently, care must be taken when using the value of a UUID as the value of an
      identifier because these can begin with numeric characters. It is normal to append
      an underscore to the beginning of identifier values where they begin with
      numbers.
    • Furthermore, an identifier must be unique within the scope of the XML document
      (i.e. there shall not be more than one id type attribute with a particular
      identifier value).
    • If an id type attribute contains an illegally formed XML name the result will be
      a schema validation error.
  3. For format of date and date-time values:
    • Dates and date-time shall be expressed in the Gregorian calendar and UTC as per
      BS ISO 8601. The formatting shall be as follows, in order of increasing precision:

      • yyyy (e.g. 1995)
      • yyyy-MM (e.g. 1995-01)
      • yyyy-MM-dd (e.g. 1995-01-25)
      • yyyy-MM-ddThh:mm:ss (e.g. 1995-01-25T12:01:55)
    • The BS ISO 8601 encoding also allows negative dates to represent BC. However,
      gco:Date and gco:DateTime XML elements do not accept negative values.
    • The GEMINI2 standard states that temporal extents may be given with as coarse a
      granularity as century (e.g. yy or 19). However, unfortunately this cannot be
      encoded in ISO 19139 XML and will result in a schema validation error. The lowest
      level of granularity allowable is the year.
  4. GEMINI2 allows for uncertainty in the temporal extent so that one or other, but not
    both, begin position or end position may be blank. The corresponding encoding in this
    case makes use of the indeterminatePosition attribute which may take a value of
    ‘unknown’ (Example Three for datasets/series). The indeterminatePosition
    attribute may also take the following values:

    • ‘now’: in which case the current date will be taken as the value
      the
      now value must be used for an ongoing end position (INSPIRE)
    • ‘before’: in which case the actual date is unknown but known to be
      before the specified date
    • ‘after’: in which case the actual date is unknown but known to be after
      the specified date
  5. Example Four shows encoding examples using these values.

Example Example One (services) : (gml:TimePeriod)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          ...
          <gmd:temporalElement>
            <gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
              <gmd:extent>
                <gml:TimePeriod gml:id='_70093470-47df-45ce-b33a-60450e251c4c'>
                  <gml:beginPosition>2009-01-01</gml:beginPosition>
                  <gml:endPosition>2010-01-25</gml:endPosition>
                </gml:TimePeriod>
              </gmd:extent>
            </gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
          </gmd:temporalElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </srv:extent>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two (services) : (gml:TimeInstant)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          ...
          <gmd:temporalElement>
            <gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
              <gmd:extent>
                <gml:TimeInstant gml:id='t1'>
                  <gml:timePosition>2011-04-20</gml:timePosition>
                </gml:TimeInstant>
              </gmd:extent>
            </gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
          </gmd:temporalElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </srv:extent>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Three (services) : unknown dates

<gmd:temporalElement>
  <gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
    <gmd:extent>
      <gml:TimePeriod gml:id='_184029eb-4865-4503-9631-e51ab1f23588'>
        <gml:beginPosition>2009-01-01</gml:beginPosition>
        <gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='unknown' />
      </gml:TimePeriod>
    </gmd:extent>
  </gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
</gmd:temporalElement>

Example Four: other unkown or unspecified dates

<gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='now'/>
<gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='before'>2010-01-25</gml:endPosition>
<gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='after'>2010-01-25</gml:endPosition>

No error information available

Name : Dataset reference date
UK GEMINI id 8
Definition Reference date for the data resource
Purpose and meaning Dataset reference date is an identifying date for the data resource. It is a notional
date of ‘publication’ of the data resource. It is different from Temporal extent
which is the actual date of the currency of the data. For example, an atlas might have the
reference date ‘2007’, but the data will have been collected over a period prior to
this.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises two elements:

  • Date as defined by BS ISO 8601
  • Date type (publication/revision/creation).

The extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD) defined in BS ISO 8601 should be used, where
YYYY is the year, MM is the month and DD is the day. It may be extended to include time
(HH:MM:SS), where HH is the hour, MM the minutes and SS the seconds, with the two parts
separated by the character ‘T’.

Date Date Type
Definition date used to reference data resource event used to
describe reference date
Obligation mandatory mandatory
Occurrence single single
Data type Date CodeList
Domain date as defined in ISO8601 Values
are:

  • creation
  • publication
  • revision

Guidance

  1. Dates may be to any degree of precision, from year (YYYY) to full date and time. The
    extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD) defined in BS ISO 8601 should be used, where YYYY is
    the year, MM the month and DD the day. It may be extended to include time (-HH:MM:SS,
    where HH is the hour, MM the minute and SS the second), with ‘T’ separating
    the two parts.
  2. Identify whether date refers to creation, last revision or publication.
  3. More than one Dataset Reference Date may be defined, but there must only be one of
    type ‘creation’ and only one of type ‘revision’
  4. The date should be completed to a resolution sufficient to identify the version.
    Thus if the data resource is updated annually, only a year is required, whilst if it
    is updated weekly, a day is required.
  5. If the resource is continuously updated or is a dataset series (e.g. a map series),
    then a notional current date should be provided at a suitable level of
    resolution.

Comment INSPIRE recommends that at least the date of the last revision should be reported
for spatial datasets
Examples

  • 2001, publication
  • 2005-05, publication
  • 1997-10-01, publication
  • 2009-05-02T09:10:01, publication

Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Date of publication INSPIRE only allows a single occurence for services
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.citation > CI_Citation.date Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:citation/gmd:CI_Citation/gmd:date Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Addition of date type
Guidelines

  • The encoding for dataset reference date is shown in Example One.
  • Dates may be expressed with low precision, as shown in the example. GEMINI2 also
    allows the date and time to be published in metadata. In this case the date encoding
    shown in Example Two must be used.
  • The format of date and date-time values is described at Dates and Times
  • Dataset reference date shall include a date type. The content of this XML element is
    drawn from a code list.

Example Example One: date

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      <gmd:citation>
        <gmd:CI_Citation>
          ...
          <gmd:date>
            <gmd:CI_Date>
              <gmd:date>
                <gco:Date>1995-01</gco:Date>
              </gmd:date>
              <gmd:dateType>
                <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                  codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                  codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
              </gmd:dateType>
            </gmd:CI_Date>
          </gmd:date>
          ...
        </gmd:CI_Citation>
      </gmd:citation>
      ...
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two - date and time

...
<gmd:date>
  <gco:DateTime>1995-06-10T12:30:59</gco:DateTime>
</gmd:date>
...

Errors observed Confusion of Date and DateTime
In ISO 19115,
Date and DateTime are distinct types. Although in many elements, either is allowed, the XML
encoding needs to be explicit about which is given. It is an error to put a date (such as
2010-05-12) in a DateTime element.
Example of invalid structure:

      
<gmd:dateStamp>
  <gco:DateTime>2012-11-15</gco:DateTime>
</gmd:dateStamp>

This should either include the time, for example:

<gmd:dateStamp>
  <gco:DateTime>2012-11-15T13:50:38</gco:DateTime>
</gmd:dateStamp>

Or be explicit that it doesn’t:

<gmd:dateStamp>
  <gco:Date>2012-11-15</gco:Date>
</gmd:dateStamp>


Name : Extent
UK GEMINI id 15
Definition Extent of data resource
Purpose and meaning This element defines the geographical extent of coverage of the data resource
relative to an administrative hierarchy. It enables searches to be carried out to find data
relevant to the area of interest. Extent polygons can be implied through reference to an
external gazetteer. Note that Extent is the coverage of the data resource, not the
individual objects in the data resource. Thus if the data resource was national parks in
England, the Extent would be ‘England’, even though many parts of England do not
have National Parks.
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain The class comprises two elements:

  • (Optional) Authority code
  • Code identifying the extent

Guidance

  1. An area approximating to the extent of coverage of the data resource should be
    chosen. Where the extent does not coincide with any defined area or areas, then either
    the nearest equivalent including the area of coverage, or a set of multiple areas that
    make up the coverage should be provided.
  2. This should not be over-generalised (i.e. do not take it as Great Britain if it only
    covers England and Wales).

Comment
Examples

  • England
  • East Anglia
  • The Wash
  • http://data.os.uk/id/7000000000041546 Central Scotland, using OS linked data as a
    gazetteer
  • https://local-authority-eng.register.gov.uk/record/GLA, Greater London Authority,
    using GDS “Local authorities in England” as a controlled list
  • http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/C64/current/5/, Irish Sea, in the NERC Vocabulary “C64, United Kingdom Charting Progress 2 sea regions”

Revision date August 2010
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata None
ISO 19119:2006+Amd:1 SV_ServiceIdentification.extent > EX_Extent > EX_GeographicExtent > EX_
GeographicDescription.geographicIdentifier
Identical
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/srv:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:geographicElement/gmd:EX_GeographicDescription/gmd:geographicIdentifier Identical
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Made optional
Guidelines

  1. The examples shown below use codes (URIs in URL form) from the
    Ordnance Survey Linked Data [22]
    boundary data. The
    code element can be used as a URL returning a page on the internet providing further
    information. The code in Example One, ending in 7000000000041546, is the URL for
    Central Scotland. Associated with this code is further information, such as the
    geometry of Central Scotland.
  2. The entity responsible for managing the extent code can be expressed in GEMINI
    metadata. An example of the encoding is shown in Example Two
  3. Recommended best practice is to select a human readable value from a controlled
    vocabulary. An example from the Marine Geospatial community is
    http://seadatanet.maris2.nl/v_bodc_vocab_v2/search.asp?lib=C19
  4. INSPIRE recommendations for encoding free text values which reference a specific
    external resource or registry is to use gmx:Anchor instead of gco:CharacterString

Note that the extent XML element is in the srv namespace.
This differs from dataset metadata instances where the extent XML element will be in the
gmd namespace.

Example Example One (services)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          <gmd:geographicElement>
            <gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
              <gmd:geographicIdentifier>
                <gmd:MD_Identifier>
                  <gmd:code>
                    <gco:CharacterString>http://data.os.uk/id/7000000000041546</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:code>
                </gmd:MD_Identifier>
              </gmd:geographicIdentifier>
            </gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
          </gmd:geographicElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </srv:extent>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two (services) - Extent encoding example with authority

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="XY-000001">
      ...
      <srv:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          <gmd:geographicElement>
            <gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
              <gmd:geographicIdentifier>
                <gmd:MD_Identifier>
                  <gmd:authority>
                    <gmd:CI_Citation>
                      <gmd:title>
                        <gco:CharacterString>ISO 3166-2</gco:CharacterString>
                      </gmd:title>
                      <gmd:date>
                        <gmd:CI_Date>
                          <gmd:date>
                            <gco:Date>1998</gco:Date>
                          </gmd:date>
                          <gmd:dateType>
                             <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                               codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                               codeListValue='revision'>revision</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                          </gmd:dateType>
                        </gmd:CI_Date>
                      </gmd:date>
                    </gmd:CI_Citation>
                  </gmd:authority>
                  <gmd:code>
                    <gco:CharacterString>GB-ENG</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:code>
                </gmd:MD_Identifier>
              </gmd:geographicIdentifier>
            </gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
          </gmd:geographicElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </srv:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Vertical extent information
UK GEMINI id 16
Definition Vertical domain of the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to describe the vertical range of the data resource
(where relevant).
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain EX_VerticalExtent, which comprises of three elements

minimum value maximum value coordinate reference
system
Definition lowest vertical extent contained in the data
resource
highest vertical extent contained in the data resource vertical coordinate reference system to which the maximum and minimum values are
measured
Obligation mandatory mandatory mandatory
Occurrence single single single
Data type real real class
Domain real number real number The class comprises two elements:

  • Authority code (optional)
  • Identifier of the coordinate reference system
Other comments For example, code provided in the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry

Guidance

  1. Minimum value: Identify approximate lowest vertical extent in the specified
    coordinate reference system
  2. Maximum value: Identify approximate highest vertical extent in the specified
    coordinate reference system
  3. Coordinate reference system: Identify coordinate reference system used for the
    vertical extent measurements. This should be recorded as a name or as a code, for
    example as provided in the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry produced by
    The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
    (see http://www.epsg-registry.org/)

Comment This element should be used only where vertical extent is significant, e.g. in geology, mining, meteorology etc.
Examples

  • Minimum value: -100.0
  • Maximum value: 0.0
  • Coordinate reference system: height in metres above Newlyn Datum

Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata None
ISO 19119:2006+Amd:1 SV_ServiceIdentification.extent > EX_Extent > EX_VerticalExtent Identical
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/srv:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:verticalElement Equivalent

  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: made optional;
    occurrence changed from multiple to
    single;
    description of class EX_VerticalExtent changed to match change to ISO
    19115.
  • GEMINI 2.1 to 2.2: made multiple again

Guidelines

  1. The encoding of the vertical extent information is explained. The vertical extent
    information is expressed by a minimum and maximum coordinate value and a vertical CRS.
    The vertical CRS expresses the CRS of the vertical extent coordinates alone. It does
    not necessarily express the vertical CRS to which vertical coordinates in the data are
    referenced – in other words it is possible that the vertical extent is defined in a
    different CRS from the vertical CRS of the data. This is convenient if it were the
    case that datasets within a domain were referenced to many different vertical CRSs
    because it could be decided that all vertical extents in metadata are to be referenced
    to a single common vertical CRS to aid searching or understanding by users. Searching
    by vertical extent, referenced to different vertical CRSs, across metadata sets would
    be complicated by the need to undertake many coordinate operations – which is not
    necessarily a trivial task – or even possible in all cases.
  2. The CRS of vertical extent elements must be provided in order to give meaning to the
    minimum and maximum coordinates. From the CRS, for example, it is possible to
    determine the orientation of the coordinate system axis (i.e. do positive values
    increase upwards or downwards from the zero reference) and the units of the coordinate
    values.
  3. There are two approaches to encoding the vertical CRS: by reference (Example One) or
    by value (Example Two). These examples express the same information: that the vertical
    extent coordinates are referenced to Ordnance Datum (Newlyn). Codes and GML CRS data
    are from the EPSG Registry.
  4. Additionally, the gco:nilReason attribute can be used if the vertical CRS is unknown
    (Example Three) but this renders the vertical extent information ambiguous at best.
    Consequently it would be better to refrain from including vertical extent information
    in the metadata instance altogether.

Example Example One (services) - Vertical CRS by reference

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="XYZ-323232">
      ...
      <srv:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          ...
          <gmd:verticalElement>
            <gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
              <gmd:minimumValue>
                <gco:Real>42</gco:Real>
              </gmd:minimumValue>
              <gmd:maximumValue>
                <gco:Real>94</gco:Real>
              </gmd:maximumValue>
              <gmd:verticalCRS xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/5701'/>
            </gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
          </gmd:verticalElement>
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </srv:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two (services) - Vertical CRS by value

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dataIdentification>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="XYZ-234567">
      ...
      <srv:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          ...
          <gmd:verticalElement>
            <gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
              <gmd:minimumValue>
                <gco:Real>42</gco:Real>
              </gmd:minimumValue>
              <gmd:maximumValue>
                <gco:Real>94</gco:Real>
              </gmd:maximumValue>
              <gmd:verticalCRS>
                <gml:VerticalCRS gml:id='epsg-crs-5701'>
                  <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>
                    urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::5701</gml:identifier>
                  <gml:name>ODN height</gml:name>
                  <gml:scope>Geodetic and engineering surveying.</gml:scope>
                  <gml:verticalCS>
                    <gml:VerticalCS gml:id='epsg-cs-6499'>
                      <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>urn:ogc:def:cs:EPSG::6499</gml:identifier>
                      <gml:name>Vertical CS. Axis: height (H). Orientation: up. UoM: m.</gml:name>
                      <gml:remarks>Used in vertical coordinate reference systems.</gml:remarks>
                      <gml:axis>
                        <gml:CoordinateSystemAxis gml:id='epsg-axis-114' gml:uom='urn:ogc:def:uom:EPSG::9001'>
                          <gml:descriptionReference xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/9904'/>
                          <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>urn:ogc:def:axis:EPSG::114</gml:identifier>
                          <gml:axisAbbrev>H</gml:axisAbbrev>
                          <gml:axisDirection codeSpace='EPSG'>up</gml:axisDirection>
                        </gml:CoordinateSystemAxis>
                      </gml:axis>
                    </gml:VerticalCS>
                  </gml:verticalCS>
                  <gml:verticalDatum>
                    <gml:VerticalDatum gml:id='epsg-datum-5101'>
                      <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>urn:ogc:def:datum:EPSG::5101</gml:identifier>
                      <gml:name>Ordnance Datum Newlyn</gml:name>
                      <gml:remarks>Orthometric heights.</gml:remarks>
                      <gml:scope>Topographic mapping, geodetic survey.</gml:scope>
                      <gml:anchorDefinition>Mean Sea Level at Newlyn between 1915 and 1921.</gml:anchorDefinition>
                    </gml:VerticalDatum>
                  </gml:verticalDatum>
                </gml:VerticalCRS>
              </gmd:verticalCRS>
            </gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
          </gmd:verticalElement>
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </srv:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:dataIdentification>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Three - Vertical CRS unknown

<gmd:verticalElement>
  <gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
    <gmd:minimumValue>
      <gco:Real>42</gco:Real>
    </gmd:minimumValue>
    <gmd:maximumValue>
      <gco:Real>94</gco:Real>
    </gmd:maximumValue>
    <gmd:verticalCRS gco:nilReason='unknown'/>
  </gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
</gmd:verticalElement>

No error information available

Name : Spatial reference system
UK GEMINI id 17
Definition Identifier, name or description of the system of spatial referencing, whether by
coordinates or geographic identifiers, used in the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to identify the way in which the data is spatially
referenced in the data resource. This may be by coordinates (e.g. the National Grid of Great
Britain) or geographic identifiers (e.g. unit postcodes).
Obligation At least one coordinate reference system shall be given
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain The class comprises two elements:

  • Code identifying the spatial reference system
  • (Conditional) codeSpace,
    – to be used if the code alone does not uniquely
    identify the referred spatial reference system.
    – not to be used if the spatial
    reference system is listed in the Default Coordinate Reference Systems

Guidance

  1. For each spatial reference system
    • Identify the spatial reference systems used to spatially reference the data in
      the data resource;
    • Check if the spatial reference system is listed in Annex D.4 (Default Coordinate
      Reference Systems) of the INSPIRE Metadata Technical Guidelines
  2. If the spatial reference system is not listed in the defaults, identify a well-known
    register that defines the coordinate reference system or, if the spatial reference
    system is using geographic identifiers (such as Post Codes, NUTS, what3words,
    Geohashing), supply a resolveable HTTP-URI that provides more information about the
    geographic identifier system.
  3. Where there appears to be more than one spatial reference system used, take the one
    that is used in resolving any conflict between the spatial referencing systems (e.g.
    if the data is recorded referenced by unit postcodes, and a coordinate is then
    associated, then unit postcode is the spatial reference system, whereas if the data is
    recorded by coordinate, and unit postcodes are added as an attribute, then it is
    ‘National Grid of Great Britain’).

Comment

  1. Only coordinate reference systems identifiers specified in a well-known common
    register shall be used
  2. Note that the data resource may be supplied in a range of other reference systems in
    addition to that in which it is recorded.

Examples British National Grid
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata crs coordinate reference system In INSPIRE it is only mandatory for interoperable spatial data services
ISO 19115:2003 MD_ReferenceSystem.referenceSystemIdentifier > RS_Identifier.code Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 gmd:referenceSystemInfo/gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem/gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier/gmd:RS_identifier Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Changed from enumerated list
Guidelines

  • When the provided text is a term or code from an externally defined explanation or
    registry value, gmx:Anchor should be used instead of gco:CharacterString
  • The content of gmx:Anchor or gco:CharacterString must not be empty

Example Example One - using gmx:Anchor for a default Coordinate Reference System (as defined
in Annex D.4 of the INSPIRE metadata technical guidance v.2)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
    <gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
      <gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
        <gmd:RS_Identifier>
          <gmd:code>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4258'>
            2D geodetic in ETRS89 on GRS80 (Latitude, Longitude) / ETRS89-GRS80</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:code>
        </gmd:RS_Identifier>
      </gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
    </gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
  </gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two - using gmx:Anchor for a non default CRS.

<referenceSystemInfo>
  <MD_ReferenceSystem>
    <referenceSystemIdentifier>
      <RS_Identifier>
        <code>
          <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/27700'>
            British National Grid (EPSG::27700)</gmx:Anchor>
        </code>
      </RS_Identifier>
    </referenceSystemIdentifier>
  </MD_ReferenceSystem>
</referenceSystemInfo>

Example Three - encoding example with authority

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
    <gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
      <gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
        <gmd:RS_Identifier>gt;
          <gmd:authority>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gco:CharacterString>EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:title>
              <gmd:date>
               <gmd:CI_Date>
                 <gmd:date>
                   <gco:Date>2010-11-02</gco:Date>
                 </gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                        codeListValue='revision'>revision</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
              </gmd:date>
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:authority>
          <gmd:code>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4258'>
            EPSG:4258</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:code>
        </gmd:RS_Identifier>
      </gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
    </gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
  </gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Four - encoding example for spatial reference systems using geographic
identifiers

<referenceSystemInfo>
  <MD_ReferenceSystem>
    <referenceSystemIdentifier>
      <RS_Identifier>
        <code>
          <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.postcodeaddressfile.co.uk/products/postcodes/postcodes_table_list.htm'>
            UK Postcodes</gmx:Anchor>
        </code>
      </RS_Identifier>
    </referenceSystemIdentifier>
  </MD_ReferenceSystem>
</referenceSystemInfo>

No error information available

Name : Spatial resolution
UK GEMINI id 18
Definition Measure of the granularity of the data (in metres)
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to provide an indication of how detailed the spatial
data is. It is equivalent to the ground sample distance. It should not be confused with the
scale of a map which is purely a display attribute (the spatial resolution should be defined
in the specification of the data resource).
Obligation Conditional – where there is a restriction on the spatial resolution of the
service
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Real
Domain Value > 0
Guidance

  1. For data capture in the field, it is the precision at which the data is
    captured. This may be the accuracy for topographic surveys, or the average sampling
    distance in an environmental survey.
  2. For data taken from maps, it is the positional accuracy of the map (defined in the
    specification of the map series).
  3. For image data, it is the resolution of the image.
  4. In many given cases, only approximate values can be given.

Comment This should not be confused with precision which refers to the resolution of the
measurements themselves. Thus for a buildings dataset, a building seed could be recorded
to a precision of 0.1 metres, but since the requirement is for the seed only to be within
the building footprint for the purpose of discriminating between buildings, the spatial
resolution of the buildings dataset would be the typical size of the building, i.e. about
10 metres.
Examples

  • 10.0
  • 0.001

Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Spatial resolution INSPIRE allows the option of either Distance or Equivalent scale.
ISO 19115:2003 Describe in the Abstract no direct equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: made conditional
Guidelines

  • For services, it is not possible to express the restriction of a service concerning
    the spatial resolution in using the ISO 19139 XML Schema.
  • It shall be expressed in the Abstract.
  • The spatial resolution restriction text shall include either an equivalent scale as
    integer valued scale denominator or a resolution distance using a numerical length
    value and with a unit of length.

Example
No error information available

Name : Resource locator
UK GEMINI id 19
Definition Location (address) for online access using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
address or similar addressing scheme
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to point to where the service may
be directly accessed online
OR, if no direct access is available, to an online resource
providing more information about accessing the service.
Obligation Conditional – Must be supplied when online access is available
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Valid URL
Guidance

  1. Specify a valid URL to the service.
  2. If no online access for the service is available, but there is a publicly available
    online resource providing additional information about accessing the described service, the URL
    pointing to this resource shall be given instead.
  3. Conditionally (required for invocable spatial data services otherwise optional) a
    description should be provided

    • For an invocable spatial data service, the gmd:linkage/gmd:description child
      element gmd:CI_OnlineResource shall contain a gmx:Anchor element pointing to the
      value “accessPoint” of the code list OnLineDescriptionCode in the INSPIRE
      Registry
  4. Although not mandatory, the following ISO 19115 sub-elements should be included, for
    best results with data.gov.uk:

    1. function
    2. name (this appears on the data.gov.uk site)
  5. In relation to online INSPIRE network services, special guidance applies (see ‘Data and Service
    Linking’
    ).

    • Identify whether the resource may be accessed.
    • Determine the location of the resource (may be a URL).
  6. For an invocable spatial data service the gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode element should point to value “information”


Comment

The URL provided as the value of the gmd:linkage element should point to one of
following type of resources:

  • a service metadata (capabilities) document of the described Spatial Data
    Service
  • a service WSDL document of the described Spatial Data Service
  • a web page with further instructions for accessing the described service

Examples

A Web Map Service (WMS) capabilities document would be given like:

http://myserver/INSPIREWM/MapServer/WMSServer?service=WMS&request=GetCapabilities&

Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource locator Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Distribution > MD_DigitalTransferOptions.online >
CI_OnlineResource.linkage
Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:distributionInfo/gmd:MD_Distribution/gmd:transferOptions/gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions/gmd:onLine/gmd:CI_OnlineResource/gmd:linkage Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Modification of Online resource
Guidelines

  1. In the examples, the URLs provided are for OGC GetCapabilities requests.
  2. The gmd:transferOptions XML element of gmd:MD_Distribution is used to encode a URL.
    Note that it is necessary to encode distribution format information in all cases. If
    the URL that is provided is the location of a point of contact then the distribution
    format is moot. However, the distribution format property is required by an ISO 19115
    constraint. In this case the INSPIRE guidelines show the encoding using gmd:MD_Format.
    Note that the element gmd:MD_Distribution must have the element gmd:distributionFormat
    as its first child according to a constraint in ISO 19115. Format information may not
    always be known in which case the encoding of the element gmd:MD_Format shown in
    Example One shall be used, following the
    INSPIRE guidance
    [9]. If the format and version values
    are known, then they should be given (see Data format).
  3. GEMINI2 allows for a URL which is a link to a point of contact where more
    information is available or where the dataset can be downloaded.
  4. ISO 19115 and the ISO
    19139 encoding provides a means of indicating the function of the online resource by
    means of the CI_OnLineFunctionCode code list. Two values from this code list provide a
    means of discriminating between a URL that is provided for information (code list
    value of ‘information’) and a URL that is the address used for downloading
    (code list value of ‘download’) the data.
  5. The INSPIRE OnLineDescriptionCode
    provides a way of further distinguishing between access point URLs and end point URLs.
    Access points call an operation directly; end points list operations and their access points.
  6. Note that the GetCapabilities URL contains an entity reference (sometimes known as
    an escape sequence) for the ampersand character. When an XML parser reads &amp; it
    replaces the sequence with &. When writing XML, XML aware software will escape
    characters automatically but text editing software will not. The ampersand character
    alone in XML is interpreted as beginning an entity or character reference. XML defines
    five entity references:

    • &lt; – The character <
    • &amp; – The character &
    • &gt; – The character >
    • &quot; – The character “
    • &apos; – The character ‘

Example Example one, showing only required linkage content (for a WMS)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:distributionInfo>
    <gmd:MD_Distribution>
      <gmd:distributionFormat>
        <gmd:MD_Format>
          <gmd:name>
            <gco:CharacterString>Unknown</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:name>
          <gmd:version gco:nilReason="inapplicable" />
        </gmd:MD_Format>
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
      <gmd:transferOptions>
        <gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
          <gmd:onLine>
            <gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
              <gmd:linkage>
                <gmd:URL>
                  http://mapserver.jrc.it/wmsconnector/com.esri.wms.Esrimap/img2k_453_mos?request=GetCapabilities&service=WMS&
                </gmd:URL>
              </gmd:linkage>
            </gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
          </gmd:onLine>
        </gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
      </gmd:transferOptions>
    </gmd:MD_Distribution>
  </gmd:distributionInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two - including name, description, and indication of function (for a WMS)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:distributionInfo>
    <gmd:MD_Distribution>
      <gmd:distributionFormat>
        ...
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
      <gmd:transferOptions>
        <gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
          <gmd:onLine>
            <gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
              <gmd:linkage>
                <gmd:URL>https://services.bgr.de/wms/geologie/emodnet2_prequaternary_seafloor_geology/?REQUEST=GetCapabilities&SERVICE=WMS&</gmd:URL>
              </gmd:linkage>
              ...
              <gmd:name>
                <gco:CharacterString>BGR Geologie: EMODnet2</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:name>
              <gmd:description>
                <gmx:Anchor
                  xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/OnLineDescriptionCode/endPoint">
                  Capabilities document for BGR Geologie: EMODnet2 Web Map Service</gmx:Anchor>
              </gmd:description>  
              <gmd:function>
                <gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode 
                  codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode' 
                  codeListValue='information'>View Service</gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode>
              </gmd:function>
            </gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
          </gmd:onLine>
        </gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
      </gmd:transferOptions>
    </gmd:MD_Distribution>
  </gmd:distributionInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Three - including name, description, and indication of function (for a WCS)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:distributionInfo>
    <gmd:MD_Distribution>
      <gmd:distributionFormat>
        ...
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
      <gmd:transferOptions>
        <gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
          <gmd:onLine>
            <gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
              <gmd:linkage>
                <gmd:URL>http://ogc2.bgs.ac.uk/BGS_EMODNET/wcs?reQuest=GetCapabilities&servIce=WCSamp;</gmd:URL>
              </gmd:linkage>
              ...
              <gmd:name>
                <gco:CharacterString>BGS EMODnet bathymetry</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:name>
              <gmd:description>
                <gmx:Anchor
                  xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/OnLineDescriptionCode/endPoint">
                  Capabilities document for BGS EMODnet bathymetry Web Coverage Service</gmx:Anchor>
              </gmd:description>  
              <gmd:function>
                <gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode 
                  codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode' 
                  codeListValue='download'>Download Service</gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode>
              </gmd:function>
            </gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
          </gmd:onLine>
        </gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
      </gmd:transferOptions>
    </gmd:MD_Distribution>
  </gmd:distributionInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Four - including name, description, and indication of function (for an invocable spatial data service)

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:distributionInfo>
    <gmd:MD_Distribution>
      <gmd:distributionFormat>
        ...
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
      <gmd:transferOptions>
        <gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
          <gmd:onLine>
            <gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
              <gmd:linkage>
                <gmd:URL>http://www.dinoservices.nl:80/geo3dmodelwebservices-1/Geo3DModelService?wsdl</gmd:URL>
              </gmd:linkage>
              ...
              <gmd:name>
                <gco:CharacterString>Geo3DModelService</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:name>
              <gmd:description>
                <gmx:Anchor
                        xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/OnLineDescriptionCode/accessPoint">
                        Web service for making "virtual" boreholes in the Digital Subsurface Models of DINO</gmx:Anchor>
              </gmd:description>  
              <gmd:function>
                <gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode 
                  codeList='http://standards.iso.org/iso/19139/resources/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode'
                  codeListValue='information'>information</gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode>
              </gmd:function>
            </gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
          </gmd:onLine>
        </gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
      </gmd:transferOptions>
    </gmd:MD_Distribution>
  </gmd:distributionInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed
In a Resource Locator, a WMS service that does not end in an ampersand or question
mark is incorrect, for example:

<gmd:linkage>
  <gmd:URL>https://map.bgs.ac.uk/ArcGIS/services/BGS_Detailed_Geology/MapServer/WMSServer</gmd:URL>
</gmd:linkage>

Should be:

<gmd:linkage>
  <gmd:URL>https://map.bgs.ac.uk/ArcGIS/services/BGS_Detailed_Geology/MapServer/WMSServer?service=WMS&request=GetCapabilities&</gmd:URL>
</gmd:linkage>

or:

<gmd:linkage>
  <gmd:URL>https://map.bgs.ac.uk/ArcGIS/services/BGS_Detailed_Geology/MapServer/WMSServer?</gmd:URL>
</gmd:linkage>

Defra metadata audit, October 2015: Very few records included direct links to WMS end points.


Name : Responsible organisation
UK GEMINI id 23
Definition Details of the organisation(s) responsible for the establishment, management,
maintenance and distribution of the data resource
Purpose and meaning This informs the user about who is responsible for the data resource
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises eight elements relating to the responsible organisation:

Metadata element
name
Definition Obligation Occurrence Data
type
Domain Rules for how to fill in the entry
contact position role or position of the responsible
person
optional single CharacterString free
text
A general job title or generic role should be identified for someone in a position
of responsibility for the data resource.
Do not identify an individual by name,
as this is subject to change without warning and the information is impossible to
keep up-to-date.
organisation name name of
organisation
mandatory single CharacterString free
text
The name of the organisation should be given in full, without
abbreviations
postal address postal address of the
organisation
optional single CharacterString free
text
The full formal postal address (as defined for example by Royal Mail) should be
given, including the postcode.
telephone number telephone number by which individuals can talk to the
organisation or
individual
optional single CharacterString free
text
The full telephone number should be given.
email address internet email address which individuals can use to
contact the organisation or
individual
mandatory single CharacterString free
text
A valid email address should be given. Do not provide a personal email
address.
web address World Wide Web address of
organisation
optional single CharacterString free
text
A valid World Wide Web address should be given.
responsible party role role of the responsible organisation mandatory multiple CodeList see INSPIRE registry The role of the responsible party should be identified.
For
datasets and dataset series, at least a distributor should be given.

Guidance

  1. The organisation name, email address and responsible party role are mandatory. Other
    entries should only be given that are relevant and known.
  2. Where no single individual is responsible, a generic role may be given.
  3. Where there are multiple Distributors / Responsible Organisations, then a separate
    entry should be given for each.
  4. For dataset and dataset series, one of the Responsible Organisations must be in the
    role of Distributor (If there is only one Responsible Organisation recorded, then it
    must be in the role of Distributor.).
  5. Where there are several distributors, a separate entry should be given for
    each.
  6. For best result with data.gov.uk:
    • Enter ‘Owner’ for UK Location Data Provider role.
    • Enter ‘Publisher’ For UK Location Data Publisher role.

    These appear in the data.gov.uk search results.

  7. If the data was created by someone other than the Data Provider, this should also be
    recorded, using the role value ‘Originator’.

Comment Facsimile number is no longer required
Examples See individual elements below.

Metadata element name Purpose and Meaning Examples
contact position Role or post of the person to contact in the organisation The mapping product manager
organisation name Ordnance Survey, Great Britain
postal address Adanac Drive, Southampton, United Kingdom, SO16 0AS
telephone number +44 8456 050505
email address This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
web address for further information about the organisation http://os.uk
responsible party role indicates whether this responsible party is acting as distributor, publisher,
author, etc.
distributor

Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Responsible party Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.pointOfContact Similar high-level class
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:pointOfContact/gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: This has been generalised from Distributor (and Originator)
to cover a range of possible roles, by the addition of ‘responsible party role’ and
minor errors in the class details have been corrected.
Guidelines

  1. The encoding example for responsible organisation is shown below. The example shows
    the minimum required information.
  2. The format of address and contact information is described at Responsible party, with a more
    fully populated example.
  3. Note on role code: the UK Location portal (data.gov.uk site) interprets ISO
    ‘owner’ as Data Provider, and ISO ‘publisher’ as Data Publisher.

Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <gmd:pointOfContact>
        <gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
          <gmd:organisationName>
            <gco:CharacterString>SeaZone Solutions</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:organisationName>
          <gmd:contactInfo>
            <gmd:CI_Contact>
              <gmd:address>
                <gmd:CI_Address>
                  <gmd:electronicMailAddress>
                    <gco:CharacterString>This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:electronicMailAddress>
                </gmd:CI_Address>
              </gmd:address>
            </gmd:CI_Contact>
          </gmd:contactInfo>
          <gmd:role>
            <gmd:CI_RoleCode 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode' 
              codeListValue='publisher'>publisher</gmd:CI_RoleCode>
          </gmd:role>
        </gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
      </gmd:pointOfContact>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Limitations on public access
UK GEMINI id 25
Definition Restrictions imposed on accessing the data resource for security and other
reasons
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to identify any external restrictions on access to the
data such as licence arrangements.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance

  1. Provide information on any limitations.
  2. The most common access restriction should be identified.
  3. Where there are no limitations on public access, this should be stated.
  4. More than one value may be included.
  5. For INSPIRE: If no limitations apply, enter ‘No limitations’.
  6. INSPIRE recognises the following kinds of reasons for limiting public access, listed in Article 13(1):
    • (a) confidentiality of the proceedings of public authorites
    • (b) international relations, public security or national defence
    • (c) the course of justice
    • (d) confidentiality of commercial or industrial information
    • (e) intellectual property rights
    • (f) confidentality of personal data
    • (g) interests of a person who supplied the data on a voluntary basis
    • (h) protection of the environment

    Each has an entry with the full text, in the INSPIRE registry, http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess

  7. At least one limitation on public access shall give an INSPIRE reason

Comment Limitations on public access are different from Use constraints which are warnings
about its suitability for particular types of usage, or constraints on the use that can be made of the data.
Examples No restriction on public access.
Revision date January 2020
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Limitations on public access Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.resourceConstraints > MD_LegalConstraints.accessConstraints & otherConstraints Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:resourceConstraints/gmd:MD_LegalConstraints/gmd:accessConstraints & otherConstraints Equivalent

  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change of name from ‘access constraint’, and
    modification of definition.
    Made mandatory, to conform to INSPIRE.
  2. GEMINI 2.0 to 2.1: Change to equivalent ISO 19115 element from accessConstraint
    making domain free text.
  3. GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: Change of encoding

Guidelines

  1. This element shall be encoded in a different resourceConstraints/MD_LegalConstraints XML element to GEMINI element 26 Use constraints
  2. The LegalConstraints element shall contain a accessConstraints/MD_RestrictionCode element with code list value “otherRestrictions”
  3. The LegalConstraints element shall also contain a gmd:otherConstraints element, with free text.
  4. If there are no limitations the value of gmd:otherConstraints shall be ‘no limitations’ (see Example Two).
  5. The free text shall be encoded in a gmx:Anchor element, with xlink:href pointing to the relevant kind of limitation from the INSPIRE Metadata registry:
    http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess
  6. Free text content cannot be empty
  7. To encode multiple limitations, include more than one gmd:otherConstraints element

Example
Example One

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <gmd:resourceConstraints>
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          ...
          <gmd:accessConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:accessConstraints>
          <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess/INSPIRE_Directive_Article13_1e">
            [Document other restrictions here - the example 1e covers IPR]</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
      </gmd:resourceConstraints>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>


Example Two - no limitations

...
<gmd:otherConstraints>
  <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess/noLimitations">no limitations</gmx:Anchor>
</gmd:otherConstraints>
...

Example Three - two limitations

...
      <gmd:resourceConstraints>
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          ...
          <gmd:accessConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:accessConstraints>
          <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess/INSPIRE_Directive_Article13_1b">
            publishing this data could prejudice public security</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
          <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://example.com/dsra_report.htm">
            Report of Data Sharing Risk Assessment</gmx:Anchor>
          <lt;/gmd:otherConstraints>
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
      </gmd:resourceConstraints>
...

Errors observed
Missing or incorrect information
Licence information should be provided, preferably by a URL.
It is an error to state ‘no limitations’ in Limitations on Public Access, when the resource is
not open access.
Defra metadata audit, October 2015: In many cases either this field has been left
empty or where the PSMA (or similar) licensing arrangements are referenced there is either a
lack of detail or no links to the appropriate sites.

Name : Use constraints
UK GEMINI id 26
Definition Restrictions and legal restraints on using the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to describe any restrictions on usage of the data (as
opposed to access)
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance

  1. Provide information on any constraints to using the resource, e.g. licensing, fees,
    usage restrictions, or refer to a URL where this information is available, e.g. a
    licence document. If entering a URL, enter this as a sub-element, not as part of free
    text. Where relevant, Data Provider licence information should be provided in the form of a Licence Title,
    and where possible, a licence URL. If more than one type of licence is included
    then the URL should point to a Data Providers page.
  2. Any known constraints should be identified. If no conditions apply, then ‘no
    conditions apply’ should be recorded.

Comment
Use constraints are different from Restrictions on public access which describe
limitations on access to the data. A data resource can have open access (e.g. to look at
it), but restricted use.
Examples Should not be used for navigation purposes.
Revision date September 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Conditions applying to access and use Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.resourceConstraints > MD_LegalConstraints.useConstraints & otherConstraints Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/gmd:resourceConstraints/gmd:MD_LegalConstraints/gmd:useConstraints & gmd:otherConstraints Equivalent

  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change to free text field from enumerated list, and making
    mandatory to conform with INSPIRE.
  • GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: Change of encoding

Guidelines

  1. This element shall be encoded in a different resourceConstraints/MD_LegalConstraints XML element to GEMINI element 25 Limitations on public access
  2. The MD_LegalConstraints element shall contain a useConstraints element
  3. Note: INSPIRE allows an accessConstraints element here; GEMINI recommends using Limitations on public access for these
  4. The useConstraints element shall contain an MD_RestrictionCode element with code list value “otherRestrictions”
  5. The LegalConstraints element shall also contain a gmd:otherConstraints element, with free text.
  6. “No conditions” and “conditions unknown” shall be specified using a gmx:Anchor link to the relevant entry in the INSPIRE metadata registry, http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/ConditionsApplyingToAccessAndUse
  7. In certain circumstances it might be appropriate to refer to an external document
    describing constraints. In this case the encoding shown in Example Two may be used.
    This is recommended for licenses, even the use of ISO 19115 otherRestrictions would not generally include license restrictions, as they have their own term in the ISO 19115 code list.
  8. If there are no limitations the value of gmd:otherConstraints shall be ‘no limitations’ (see Example Three).
  9. There may be more than one gmd:otherConstraints element

Example Example One

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification id="bgs-0000-1">
      ...
      <gmd:resourceConstraints>
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:useConstraints>
          <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gco:CharacterString>Not to be used for navigation</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
          ...
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
      </gmd:resourceConstraints>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>


Example Two - with external file

...
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:useConstraints>
          <gmd:otherConstraints>
      <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/'>Open Government Licence</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
          ...
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
...

Example Three - no conditions apply

        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:useConstraints>
          <gmd:otherConstraints>
      <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/ConditionsApplyingToAccessAndUse/noConditionsApply'>no conditions apply</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
          ...
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>

Errors observed
Missing or incorrect constraints information

Licence information should be provided, preferably by a URL.
It is an error to state ‘no conditions apply’ in Use Constraints, when restrictions do in fact exist.


Name : Spatial data service type
UK GEMINI id 37
Definition Generic name of the service type
Purpose and meaning This identifies the type of service
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type GenericName
Domain Possible values are as follows (in brackets are the language neutral names to be used):

  • Discovery Service (discovery)
  • View Service (view)
  • Download Service (download)
  • Transformation Service (transformation)
  • Invoke Spatial Data Service (invoke)
  • Other Service (other)

Guidance Select generic type from list
These service types are explained in the
INSPIRE guidance
[9].
Comment Not applicable to datasets or dataset series.
Examples view
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Spatial data service type Equivalent
ISO 19119:2006+Amd:1 1 serviceType Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/srv:serviceType Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
Guidelines The encoding example for spatial data service type is shown in the example
below. The value domain of the service type (i.e. the list of acceptable values to encode
in <gco:LocalName>view</gco:LocalName>) is specified in Part D 3 of the
INSPIRE Metadata Implementing Rules and is repeated below (the words are to be encoded in
lower case):

  • discovery
  • view
  • download
  • transformation
  • invoke
  • other

Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
   ...
   <gmd:identificationInfo>
     <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
       ...
       <srv:serviceType>
         <gco:LocalName>view</gco:LocalName>
       </srv:serviceType>
       ...
     </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
   </gmd:identificationInfo>
   ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

No error information available

Name : Coupled resource
UK GEMINI id 38
Definition Identifier of a dataset that the service operates on
Purpose and meaning This identifies the dataset(s) associated with the service
Obligation Conditional – mandatory for View and Download services, optional for other
service types.
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Resource identifier or locator of the data resource
Guidance

  1. Identify the data resources on which the service operates
  2. Enter the corresponding URL for the published data metadata record. This may be:
    • an OGC CSW GetRecordById request
    • an address of a metadata instance in a WAF

Comment
Examples http://image2000.jrc.ec.europa.eu/#image2000_1_n12_multi
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Coupled resource Equivalent
ISO 19119:2006+Amd:1 9 operatesOn Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/srv:operatesOn Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element, required for INSPIRE
Guidelines

  1. INSPIRE guidance
    [9]
    states that Coupled resource shall be implemented by reference, i.e. through a URL
    that points to the metadata record of the data on which the service operates; a
    Coupled resource is implemented using XLinking.
  2. Coupled resource is encoded using the operatesOn XML element in the srv namespace.
    The data type of this element is the MD_DataIdentification XML element in the gmd
    namespace.
  3. The srv:operatesOn element shall contain a Unique Resource Identifier, (not to be
    confused with a W3C URI) through an an xlink:href attribute, pointing to the
    gmd:MD_DataIdentification element of the metadata record of the provided dataset or
    dataset series. The value of the xlink attribute shall be a URL that allows access to
    an unambiguous metadata instance, which may be:

    • an OGC CSW GetRecordById request
    • an address of a metadata instance in a WAF
  4. The approach defined here follows
    INSPIRE technical guidance for view services
    [16] (see page 23 Implementation
    Requirement 14)
  5. The obligation on coupled resource is conditional: it is mandatory (in INSPIRE
    metadata regulations and hence GEMINI2) if a linkage to the datasets on which the
    service operates is available. This is always the case for view and download services
    so if the service metadata is about a view (e.g a WMS) or download service (e.g. a WCS
    or WFS), Coupled resource is effectively mandatory. Other types of service, such as
    transformation, may not be coupled to a data resource so the constraint on the element
    is not enforced by validation (i.e. XSD schema or Schematron). Implementers may wish
    to declare a Coupled resource for other non-view service types and in these cases the
    coupled resource will not necessarily be a dataset.
  6. Example One shows encoding coupled resource using the by reference mechanism and an
    OGC CSW GetRecordById request.
  7. Example Two shows encoding Coupled resource with a reference to a metadata instance
    in a WAF.
  8. Example Three shows a variant of a CSW GetRecordById request, where a fragment
    identifier is used to identify the specific MD_DataIdentification element operated on
    by the service.
  9. It should be noted that both an OGC CSW GetRecordById and a WAF available metadata
    instance are full metadata instances which may contain more than one
    MD_DataIdentification element, in accordance with ISO 19115. Therefore, an application
    wishing to dereference the operatesOn element must ‘know’ which
    MD_DataIdentification element to obtain from the metadata instance. In the case of
    GEMINI and INSPIRE metadata it will be the first MD_DataIdentification element in the
    instance (XPath //gmd:identificationInfo[1]) unless a fragment identifier is used, in
    which case it may be in any location.

Example Example One using the by reference mechanism and an OGC CSW request

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:operatesOn 
        xlink:href='http://metadata.bgs.ac.uk/geonetwork/srv/en/csw?SERVICE=CSW&REQUEST=GetRecordById
          &ID=9df8df52-d788-37a8-e044-0003ba9b0d98&elementSetName=full&OutputSchema=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd'/>
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Two using WAF

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:operatesOn xlink:href='http://mywaf.com/metadata/dataset.xml'/>
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Three using the by reference mechanism and an OGC CSW request with a fragment
identifier.

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:operatesOn 
        xlink:href='http://metadata.bgs.ac.uk/geonetwork/srv/en/csw?SERVICE=CSW&REQUEST=GetRecordById
          &ID=9df8df52-d788-37a8-e044-0003ba9b0d98&OutputSchema=http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd&elementSetName=full#BGS-13480426&'/>
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

In this example the fragment identifier #BGS-13480426 would correspond to the value of
the id attribute of the gmd:MD_DataIdentification element of the dataset metadata
record, like below

<gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BGS-13480426">

Errors observed
Missing coupled resource

INSPIRE requires Coupled resource to be populated where relevant.
This effectively
makes it mandatory for View & Download services, and the INSPIRE Geoportal reports this
as a validation issue.
However, the Geoportal also reports this issue for a Discovery
service metadata record, where coupled resource is not mandatory.
Encoding by value A by value encoding is shown below; this is not allowed by the
INSPIRE encoding guidance. Note that the xlink:href attribute of the operatesOn element has
been removed and that the operatesOn element now contains an MD_DataIdentification element.

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:operatesOn>
        <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BGS-625-13480426">
          <gmd:citation>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gco:CharacterString>Digital Geological Map Data of Great Britain - 625k (DiGMapGB-625)</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:title>
              ...
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:citation>
          ...
        </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
      </srv:operatesOn>
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>


Name : Conformity
UK GEMINI id 41
Definition Statement of conformity with the product specification or user requirement against
which the data is being evaluated
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this is to record the conformity to the INSPIRE or other data
specification
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises the following elements:

  • Specification
  • Degree
  • Explanation

For details see below.

Metadata element name specification degree explanation
Definition Citation of the product specification or user requirement
against which data resource is evaluated
degree of conformity with the
specification
meaning of conformance for this result
Meaning The purpose of this element is to identify the specification
against which conformity is evaluated
The purpose of this element is to
identify the conformity of the data resource to the cited specification
The
purpose of this element is to explain the meaning of conformity in this
context
Obligation Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory
Occurrence single single single
Data type Class CI_Citation (from
ISO19115)
Boolean CharacterString
Domain The following properties are expected:

  • title of type character string (free text)
  • reference date defined as
    • a date type (creation, revision, or publication)
    • an effective date
true if conformant
false if not conformant
free
text
Rules Cite the specification to which the data resource should
conform
The data resource should be evaluated against the specification and
the result recorded
Include a statement about which aspects of the
specification the data resource conforms and any exceptions
Examples D2.8.I.5 INSPIRE Data Specification on Addresses – Guidelines,
publication, 2010-04-26
true Only mandatory items included

Guidance

  1. At least one conformity statement shall be to an INSPIRE specification, even if simply to say that the data set is not conformant or not tested
  2. Other conformity statements may be added, citing INSPIRE technical guidance or other specifications
  3. Each conformity statement shall relate to only one specification
  4. Assess the conformity of the data resource against its product specification or the INSPIRE thematic data specification.
  5. State the data specification to which the degree of conformity applied and optionally an ‘Explanation’,
    for example to reference the conformance criteria in the specification against which conformance is being claimed.
  6. For INSPIRE:
    • Network Services should declare conformity to [Regulation 976/2009].
    • Invocable Spatial Data Services (including interoperable and harmonised Spatial
      Data Services) shall declare conformity to [Regulation 1089/2010].

Comment

  1. The specification is identified in the element Specification.
  2. The conformance of a data resource may be considered with respect to more than one
    specification.
  3. For INSPIRE, the citation title shall be the official title of the INSPIRE
    Implementing Rule, specification document or Conformance Class
  4. For INSPIRE, the date given will be the date of publication of the INSPIRE
    Implementing Rule, specification document or Conformance Class
  5. For INSPIRE Implementing Rule documents, the value of the title element shall match
    exactly the official title of the cited document in the language of the metadata.

Examples Conformance of a dataset to Regulation 1089/2010 would have the title:
Commission Regulation (EU) No 1089/2010 of 23 November 2010 implementing Directive
2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards interoperability of
spatial data sets and services.
,
and would give a publication date of
2010-12-08
Revision date April 2020
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Conformity Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 DQ_DataQuality > DQ_Element.result > DQ_ConformanceResult Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality/gmd:report/gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency/gmd:result/gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult Equivalent

  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
  • GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: changed the way to encode that a resource has not
    been tested against the relevant INSPIRE specification

Guidelines

  1. The encoding for Conformity is shown in the example.
  2. Note that the encoding of conformity requires a specification (encoded using
    gmd:CI_Citation), an explanation and a pass.
  3. INSPIRE Metadata Implementing Rules state that there are three possible conformance results: conformant, not conformant and not
    evaluated. Not evaluated is expressed by a conformity statement with a nilReason
    (unknown) specified in the pass element.

  1. All gmd:dataQualityInfo XML element shall have a gmd:scope
    XML element, set to ‘service’.
  2. It is important to note that if the scope of the data quality information is ‘service’
    then the gmd:levelDescription XML element is required, as shown below.

Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dataQualityInfo>
    <gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
      <gmd:scope>
        <gmd:DQ_Scope>
          <gmd:level>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='service' 
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>service</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
          </gmd:level>
          ...
          <gmd:levelDescription>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeDescription>
              <gmd:other>
      		<gco:CharacterString>service</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:other>
            </gmd:MD_ScopeDescription>
          </gmd:levelDescription>
        </gmd:DQ_Scope>
      </gmd:scope>
      <gmd:report>
        <gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency>
          <gmd:result>
            <gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
              <gmd:specification>
                <gmd:CI_Citation>
                  <gmd:title>
      		    <gco:CharacterString>Service Abstract Test Suite</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:title>
                  <gmd:date>
                    <gmd:CI_Date>
                      <gmd:date>
                        <gco:Date>2007-11-21</gco:Date>
                      </gmd:date>
                      <gmd:dateType>
                        <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode
			  codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/
			    codelist/ML_gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
			  codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                      </gmd:dateType>
                    </gmd:CI_Date>
                  </gmd:date>
                </gmd:CI_Citation>
              </gmd:specification>
              <gmd:explanation>
     		<gco:CharacterString>See the referenced specification</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:explanation>
              <gmd:pass>
                <gco:Boolean>true</gco:Boolean>
              </gmd:pass>
            </gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
          </gmd:result>
        </gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency>
      </gmd:report>
      ...
    </gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
  </gmd:dataQualityInfo>
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed
Conformity statement missing
INSPIRE requires a ‘conformity’ statement, which can say that the resource conforms, or does not
conform to a specification, or that it hasn’t been tested.
This is encoded with an ISO 19139 quality report.
Incorrect citation of INSPIRE regulation
When citing the INSPIRE regulation, the title and publication date need to match exactly.
Any deviation may result in the validation failure message “The gmd:pass element is not nillable and shall have a value” – even if the error is in the spelling of the title.

Name : Equivalent scale
UK GEMINI id 43
Definition Level of detail expressed as the scale denominator of a comparable hardcopy map or
chart
Purpose and meaning This is purely to conform to INSPIRE, and has little meaning for most digital
data
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Integer
Domain Positive integer
Guidance Where the data is captured from a map, the scale of that map should be
recorded.
Comment Expression of spatial resolution by distance is preferred. Spatial resolution
should only be expressed by equivalent scale where a distance cannot be
determined.
Examples 5,000
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Spatial resolution Spatial resolution may also be expressed as distance
ISO 19115:2003 Describe in the Abstract no direct equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
Guidelines

  • For services, it is not possible to express the restriction of a service concerning
    the spatial resolution when using the ISO 19139 XML Schema.
  • It shall be expressed in the Abstract.
  • The spatial resolution restriction text shall include either an equivalent scale as
    integer valued scale denominator or a resolution distance using a numerical length
    value and with a unit of length.

Example
No error information available

Name : Bounding box
UK GEMINI id 44
Definition Rectangle enclosing the extent of the data resource described in latitude and
longitude
Purpose and meaning This is to enable the resource to be located geographically
Obligation Conditional on there being a defined extent for the service
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain EX_GeographicBoundingBox

Metadata element name West bounding longitude East bounding
longitude
South bounding longitude North bounding longitude
Definition western-most limit of the data resource extent, expressed in
longitude in decimal degrees (positive east)
eastern-most limit of the data
resource extent, expressed in longitude in decimal degrees (positive
east)
southern-most limit of the data resource extent, expressed in latitude
in decimal degrees (positive north)
Obligation mandatory mandatory mandatory mandatory
Occurrence single single single single
Data type Decimal, expressed in degrees to at least two decimal
places
Domain -180.00 <= west bounding longitude <= 180.00 -180.00 <= east bounding longitude <= 180.00 -90.00 <= south bounding latitude <= north bounding
latitude
south bounding latitude <= north bounding latitude <= 90.00
Other comments The West bounding coordinate usually has a value less
than the value of the East bounding coordinate, except when the extent straddles the
180 degree meridian.
The East bounding longitude usually has a value greater
than the value of the West bounding longitude, except when the extent straddles the
180 degree meridian.
northern-most limit of the data resource extent,
expressed in latitude in decimal degrees (positive north)

Guidance

  1. Identify a bounding box slightly larger than the extent of the data resource, and
    determine the coordinates of the boundaries. It may be necessary to convert from another
    coordinate system (e.g. National Grid) into lat/long.
  2. Only approximate values are required, sufficient to identify the extent on a global
    basis. The bounding box is implicitly in WGS84.

Comment The bounding box will often cover areas that are not directly related to the area
covered by the resource.
Examples -9.23, 2.69, 49.84, 60.85
Revision date December 2012
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Geographic bounding box Identical
ISO 19115:2003 SV_ServiceIdentification.extent > EX_Extent > EX_GeographicExtent >
EX_GeographicBoundingBox
Minor difference in name
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/srv:SV_ServiceIdentification/srv:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:geographicElement/gmd:EX_GeographicBoundingBox

  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Slight change of name of each element
  • GEMINI 2.1 to 2.2: the four separate elements were merged to form Bounding box, which was made multiple

Guidelines

  1. The encoding example for geographic bounding box for datasets is shown in the
    example
  2. Note that the extent XML element is in the gmd namespace. This differs from service
    metadata instances where the extent XML element will be in the srv namespace.
  3. The definition of the equivalent ISO 19115 class, EX_GeographicBoundingBox, is
    ‘Geographic area of the entire dataset referenced to WGS 84’. Consequently,
    the CRS of the coordinates expressed in metadata is always WGS 84 (identified by the
    EPSG URI http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326). This means that the coordinate
    values shall be expressed in units of degrees (encoded using decimal numbers) with
    axes orientated north and east. The geodetic datum is WGS 84.

Note that the encoding is very similar to that used in
metadata instances for datasets or series, except that the extent XML element is in the
srv namespace instead of gmd. This is because extent is a property of
MD_DataIdentification (ISO 19115) and SV_ServiceIdentification (ISO 19119/Amd 1:2008), not
a property of the parent MD_Identification.

Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
      ...
      <srv:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          <gmd:geographicElement>
            <gmd:EX_GeographicBoundingBox>
              <gmd:westBoundLongitude>
                <gco:Decimal>-8.14</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:westBoundLongitude>
              <gmd:eastBoundLongitude>
                <gco:Decimal>2.96</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:eastBoundLongitude>
              <gmd:southBoundLatitude>
                <gco:Decimal>49.79</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:southBoundLatitude>
              <gmd:northBoundLatitude>
                <gco:Decimal>60.77</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:northBoundLatitude>
            </gmd:EX_GeographicBoundingBox>
          </gmd:geographicElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </srv:extent>
      ...
    </srv:SV_ServiceIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed Overly precise bounding box

GEMINI states that the bounding latitude and longitude should be stated to at least two
decimal places. The INSPIRE geoportal used to report two decimal places as an error; it does
not now. However, some software defaults to values that are unnecessarily “precise”. For example:

<gmd:westBoundLongitude>
  <gco:Decimal>-8.17548890898914</gco:Decimal>
</gmd:westBoundLongitude>

Six decimal places of a degree is something like 1cm, so the longitude above is being given
to roughly the nearest molecule.


Name : Quality scope
UK GEMINI id 48
Definition The specific data to which the data quality information applies
Purpose and meaning To enable data quality to be reported on a subset of the data resource
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type Class
Domain DQ_Scope from ISO 19115
Guidance
Comment
Examples
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata metadata/2.0/req/sds/only-one-dq-element INSPIRE only allows a maximum of one Data quality element, so only one scope – the whole resource
ISO 19115:2003 DQ_DataQuality.scope Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality/gmd:scope Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines

  • It is important to note that if the scope of the data quality information is
    ‘service’ then the gmd:levelDescription XML element is required
  • The value of gmd:other must be service (in the language of the metadata), as shown below.

Example

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dataQualityInfo>
    <gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
      <gmd:scope>
        <gmd:DQ_Scope>
          <gmd:level>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode 
              codeListValue='service'
              codeList='https://schemas.isotc211.org/schemas/19139/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>service</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
          </gmd:level>
          ...
          <gmd:levelDescription>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeDescription>
              <gmd:other>
      		<gco:CharacterString>service</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:other>
            </gmd:MD_ScopeDescription>
          </gmd:levelDescription>
        </gmd:DQ_Scope>
      </gmd:scope>
      ...
    </gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
  </gmd:dataQualityInfo>
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Errors observed
No level description
ISO 19115 requires that a ‘level description’ is
given for any quality statement that is not describing the ‘dataset’ or
‘series’ level. INSPIRE and GEMINI use the quality statement for both lineage and
conformity. This means that any ‘service’ record must provide a
gmd:DQ_Scope/gmd:levelDescription element, as shown above.
A similar rule applies to
hierarchyLevelName, which must be provided for any record that is not describing a
dataset.

For an explanation of the sections, see UK GEMINI Introduction